Clonidine belongs to a class of drugs called central alpha-adrenergic agonists. In the United States, clonidine tablets are sold under the brand name Catapres and clonidine skin patches are sold under the brand name Catapres-TTS. There is also an injectable form that is administered directly into the spinal cord for the treatment of postoperative pain. Clonidine tablets and patches are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of high blood pressure. However, clonidine has been found to be useful in the treatment of alcohol, opiate, and nicotine withdrawal syndromes, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette's syndrome, one of the tic disorders . Clonidine was synthesized in 1960s and was initially tested as a nasal decongestant. In the United States, clonidine was first used to treat hypertension although it has also been investigated for treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders. Clonidine works on specific nerve cells in the brain that are responsible for lowering blood pressure, slowing heart rate, and decreasing the body's reaction to the withdrawal of chemicals like alcohol, opiates, cocaine, and nicotine. The 2016 American Diabetes Association's (ADA's) standards of medical care in diabetes indicate that a majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have hypertension. In patients with type 1 diabetes, nephropathy is often the cause of hypertension, whereas in type 2 diabetes, hypertension is one of a group of related cardiometabolic factors. Hypertension remains one of the most common causes of congestive heart failure (CHF). Antihypertensive therapy has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of death from stroke and coronary artery disease. Other studies have demonstrated that a reduction in blood pressure (BP) may result in improved renal function. Therefore, earlier detection of hypertensive nephrosclerosis (using means to detect microalbuminuria) and aggressive therapeutic interventions (particularly with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor drugs [ACEIs]) may prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. NOTE: A group was empaneled to write the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) guideline, but this effort was discontinued by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).
Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a benign rash first described by Gibert in 1860; the name means “fine pink scale.” It is a common skin disorder observed in otherwise healthy people, most frequently children and young adults. Other types of similar skin eruptions include lichen planus, psoriasis, and pityriasis rubra pilaris. Pityriasis rosea manifests as an acute, self-limiting, papulosquamous eruption with a duration of 6-8 weeks. It evolves rapidly, usually beginning with patch that heralds the eruption, the so-called “herald patch” (see the image below). It may sometimes occur in atypical variants or may mimic other skin disorders, such as tinea corporis and secondary syphilis. Pityriasis rosea (PR) has often been considered to be a viral exanthem, a view supported by the condition’s seasonal occurrence, its clinical course, the possibility of epidemic occurrence, the presence of occasional prodromal symptoms, and the low rate of recurrence. Pityriasis rosea has been linked to upper tract respiratory infections. An increased incidence is reported among groups with close physical contact (eg, families, students, and military personnel), though the condition does not appear to be highly contagious. This medication is used alone or with other medications to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as part of a total treatment plan, including psychological, social, and other treatments. Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking clonidine and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually twice daily (in the morning and at bedtime). If the doses are not equal, take the larger dose at bedtime. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. To reduce your risk of side effects, your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Also, do not split the tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing.
These patients were given either 1 spironolactone 12.5 mg daily and titrated up to 50 mg daily or 2 clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily and titrated up to 0.3 mg twice daily. Clonidine is the generic name of Catapres, a medication used to treat high blood pressure. Clonidine works by slowing down your heart rate and relaxing blood vessels.