A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract. The active ingredient in most decongestants is either pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine (the latter of which has disputed effectiveness). Intranasal corticosteroids can also be used as decongestants and antihistamines can be used to alleviate runny nose, nasal itch, and sneezing. Topical decongestants on topical application as dilute solution (0.05–0.1%) produce local vasoconstriction. Regular use of decongestants for long periods should be avoided because mucosal ciliary function is impaired: atrophic rhinitis and anosmia (loss of the sense of smell) can occur due to persistent vasoconstriction. Decongestants can be absorbed from the nose via an inhaler and produce systemic effects, mainly central nervous system stimulation and rise in blood pressure. These drugs should be used cautiously in hypertensives and in those receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), as they can cause hypertensive crisis. Control of tachyarrhythmias, especially supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The injection can be repeated at 5 minute intervals until a satisfactory response has been obtained. Injection to patients with a systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg should only be given with special care. The same dosage can also be used to control arrhythmias developing during anaesthesia. Injection should be initiated in a coronary care or similar unit when the patient's haemodynamic condition has stabilised. The second or third dose should not be given if the systolic blood pressure is 0.26 seconds, or if there is any aggravation of dyspnoea or cold sweating. Pain relief may also decrease the need for opiate analgesics. Initially up to 5 mg injected intravenously at a rate of 1-2 mg per minute. at induction is usually sufficient to prevent the development of arrhythmias during anaesthesia. every 2 minutes to a maximum of 15 mg total as determined by blood pressure and heart rate. Injection in acute myocardial infarction reduces infarct size and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Injection has been shown to reduce mortality when administered to patients with acute myocardial infarction. A total dose of 10-15 mg generally proves sufficient. Further injections of 2 mg may be given as required to a maximum overall dose of 10 mg. Oral therapy should commence 15 minutes after the last injection with 50 mg every 6 hours for 48 hours. Because of the risk of a pronounced drop of blood pressure, the I. Patients who fail to tolerate the full intravenous dose should be given half the suggested oral dose. Dose adjustment is normally not needed in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis because metoprolol has a low protein binding (5 – 10 %). However, in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction a reduction in dosage may be necessary. • Decompensated cardiac failure (pulmonary oedema, hypoperfusion or hypotension). Prednisolone 15mg Metformina bula pdf How can i order flagyl online Jul 23, 2014. Metoprolol Lopressor is a beta blocker, prescribed for treating high blood. Metoprolol can also improve the likelihood of survival after a heart attack. metoprolol is sometimes used off-label to control anxiety, including. Metoprolol is commonly prescribed to treat high blood pressure and is a popular beta-blocker because of its extended-release formula, which lasts throughout the day. Over time, significant increases in stress hormones can eventually cause a nervous. These drugs are not commonly prescribed for anxiety. Metoprolol Lopressor / Toprol-XL This is considered an older beta blocker that. Metoprolol succinate is an extended-release version of metoprolol. This drug is a beta blocker that is used to treat high blood pressure and other heart conditions. While many patients can take this drug with no problems, an alternative to metoprolol succinate may be needed if it does not control blood pressure adequately or causes unpleasant side effects. Metoprolol succinate is just one of many drugs known as beta blockers. These medications block the effects of epinephrine on the heart, which slows the heartbeat and reduces blood pressure. These drugs also improve blood flow, reducing the force of the heartbeat. If metoprolol succinate is not effective, other beta blockers may be used to control blood pressure. Beta-blockers are a class of medications prescribed to block the effects of adrenaline, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. They help the heart work more efficiently, thereby reducing blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tremors and even anxiety. As well, beta-blockers have a relaxing effect on muscle function, gaining the drug class a popular reputation as an illegal, performance-enhancement drug for athletes who benefit from the adrenaline-blocking effects of the medication. Propranolol is a beta-blocker that interferes with the reaction of nerve impulses inside the body, especially in the heart. As a result, propranolol causes the heart to beat slower, decreases blood pressure and calms the symptoms of anxiety. Some athletes use propranolol specifically for its anxiety-reducing effects, resulting in steadier hands, an even heart rate and the increased ability to focus. As of 2010, propranolol and all other beta-blockers were banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency for all Olympic sports, including archery, gymnastics, shooting and golf. 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